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Diplomacy builds and tends the coalitions that deter or make war.
It disrupts the alliances of enemies and sustains the passivity of potentially hostile powers.
Furthermore, I suspect taht some of the ‘chicken scratch’ marginalia may be ink blots saying “Simon”, and that these were added in the middle of the 15th century, near the start of the VMs’ life. Putting all the wobbly factuality to one side, this VMs account would be woefully incomplete if it failed to mention the sheer intellectual romance of such a mystery-filled mega-object, the tragi-comedy of all the mad theories surrounding it, let alone the blood-spattered trail of ruined reputations and wasted lives dripping behind this inscrutable “Sphinx”.
For centuries, it has acted as a blank screen for numerous people to project their (often somewhat demented) historical / cryptological / novelistic fantasies onto, or if not that then an academic cliff to throw their hard-earned reputation over: yet recently there are signs that a few people are (at long last) starting to look at the VMs with (relatively) clear eyes. ) Arguably the biggest question to face up to is this: when people try to understand the VMs, ).
It may be coercive (i.e., backed by the threat to apply punitive measures or to use force) but is overtly nonviolent.
Its primary tools are international dialogue and negotiation, primarily conducted by accredited , meaning “one who is sent”) and other political leaders.
Diplomacy is the chief, but not the only, instrument of foreign policy, which is set by political leaders, though diplomats (in addition to military and intelligence officers) may advise them.
Over the long term, diplomacy strives to build an international order conducive to the nonviolent resolution of disputes and expanded cooperation between states.
Its last four hundred years of history can be squeezed into eight bullet points (My opinion (which you can take or leave) is that if we put more palaeographic effort into reading the VMs’ marginalia, we would very probably improve on this unsatisfactory situation.
For example, I believe that the top line of f116v says “por le bon simon s(int)…“, and that this was possibly even written by the original author.
By the 20th century, however, the diplomatic practices pioneered in Europe had been adopted throughout the world, and diplomacy had expanded to cover summit meetings and other international conferences, parliamentary diplomacy, the international activities of supranational and subnational entities, unofficial diplomacy by nongovernmental elements, and the work of international civil servants.
The term , meaning “an object.” The folded document conferred a privilege—often a permit to travel—on the bearer, and the term came to denote documents through which princes granted such favours.
Later it applied to all solemn documents issued by chancelleries, especially those containing agreements between sovereigns.