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If the half-life is 47 years, how old is the material? Apply: Use the Gizmo to find the half-life of Isotope B. Print out this document and turn it in with this sheet. Explore: Use the Gizmo to explore whether the number of atoms present affects the half-life that you measure. Extend your thinking: The slow decay of radioactive materials can be used to find the age of rocks, fossils, and archaeological artifacts.In a process called radiometric dating, scientists measure the proportions of radioactive atoms and daughter atoms in an object to determine its age.What dangerous gas is produced by the decay of radium-226? Practice: Americium-241 is a radioactive isotope used in smoke detectors. Summarize: In general, how can you determine the mass number of the daughter product after alpha decay has taken place? Most of the helium used to fill balloons and blimps must be extracted from Earth’s crust. Activity B: Beta decay Get the Gizmo ready: • Click Reset, and turn off Show equation. For the simulated substance, every 10 seconds represents one half-life. Real radioactive samples will contain billions of radioactive atoms. Use the probe to measure how long it takes for exactly one-half of the original radioactive atoms to decay. On the next row, predict the number of radioactive atoms that will be present at each time. Half-life 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (seconds) Predicted # radioactive atoms Actual # radioactive atoms 4.Write an equation for the alpha decay of Americium-241 below. Analyze: In each equation, how is the mass number on the left side of the arrow related to the sum of mass numbers on the right side of the arrow? How does your data demonstrate the definition of a half-life? To model the decay of a large sample, change from Random decay to Theoretical decay on the SIMULATION pane. Based on the graph, what is your estimate of the half-life of isotope A? Calculate: Calculate the percentage of radioactive atoms that are left after each half-life. In this setting, the half-life will be different each time you run the simulation. In each trial, measure the half-life using the Half-life probe on the graph.All the atoms in each chemical element have the same number of protons in their nuclei.
You can use the Half-life Gizmo to model the decay of Carbon-14, which has a half-life of approximately 6,000 years (actual value is 5,730 years).
Part I – Nuclear Decay Vocabulary: alpha particle, atomic number, beta particle, daughter product, gamma ray, isotope, mass number, nuclear decay, positron, radioactive, subatomic particle Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) The chart below gives the locations, charges, and approximate masses of three subatomic particles. Gizmo Warm-up While most atoms are stable, some are radioactive, which means that they have a tendency to undergo spontaneous nuclear decay.
The approximate mass of each particle is given in universal mass units (u). The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in each atom of the element. The decay of radioactive atoms generally results in the emission of particles and/or energy. Besides the alpha particle, what else is emitted from the nucleus during alpha decay? What you see is an equation that shows the original uranium atom on the left. In the bottom left box, write the atomic number of the daughter product and press “Enter.” What is this number? In the next set of boxes, enter the mass number and atomic number of the alpha particle, which has the same composition as the nucleus of a helium (He) atom. What happened to the proton after absorbing an electron? What is the mass number and charge of the absorbed electron? Predict: During electron capture, an electron is absorbed into the nucleus, causing a proton to transform into a neutron. Think and discuss: What do electron capture and positron emission have in common? Is the rate of decay fastest at the beginning, middle, or end of the process?
Description Age (years) Egyptian papyrus with 63% of its original carbon-14 atoms Aboriginal charcoal with 22% of its original carbon-14 atoms.
Mayan headdress with 79% of its original carbon-14 atoms Neanderthal skull with 3% of its original carbon-14 atoms TAKE ADVANTAGE OF OUR PROMOTIONAL DISCOUNT DISPLAYED ON THE WEBSITE AND GET A DISCOUNT FOR YOUR PAPER NOW!
Use the Gizmo to estimate the age of each of the objects below.